Bean Cultivation Guide – A Popular Indian Crop
India is the second nation in the whole world in the production of vegetables. So India has an essential contribution to the vegetables grown in the world. Vegetables are cultivated as cash crops in India. Farmers earn daily income from vegetable cultivation. From vegetable cultivation, the farmer gets a daily income for about 2 to 3 months.
As we all know, all types of vegetables cultivated in India. But today, we are talking about the cultivation of beans. Beans occupy a vital place in the cultivation of vegetables in India because the cultivation of beans is a good profitable deal at a low cost. Cultivation of beans takes 3 to 4 months, but after that farmers can easily earn 2 to 3 months of cash income every day from the cultivation of beans. In today’s post, we will share information about the easy and advanced way of cultivating beans in simple steps for our farmer brothers.
Nutrients Found In Beans
The bean cultivation is known as a green bean. It is a plant of the family Fabaceae / Leguminosae. Moreover, Beans are a versatile food item for health. Nutrients found in abundance, due to which they are more beneficial for the human body. It contains a sufficient amount of digestible proteins, vitamins and carbohydrates, which makes it very helpful in removing malnutrition.
It contains 3.8 percent protein, 0.7 percent fat, 6.7 percent carbohydrate, 1.70 percent iron, 40.00 percent sulphur, 74.00 percent potassium, 210.00 calcium, 1.08 percent fibre and 34.00 percent magnesium. In addition, vitamin B6, thiamine, pantothenic acid and niacin found in beans. Apart from this, some such elements found in beans which work to clean the blood. By keeping the blood clean, the chances of getting skin diseases are significantly reduced.
Soil, Climate And Temperature Requirements For Bean Cultivation
Cultivation of beans can be done successfully in light soils with loamy and sandy soils, but loamy and sandy soils with water drainage have been considered more suitable for their cultivation. The pH value of the land for its cultivation should between 5.5 to 6.0. The bean plant is of temperate climate. Its plants grow well in cold weather. Therefore, its cultivation is good in a cold climate. A temperature of 15 to 22 degrees considered suitable for cultivating beans. And its seeds germinate well at this temperature. In such a situation, it would be correct to say that beans can grow successfully in almost all cold climates except where the frost is high.
Bean Seed Quantity And Seed Treatment
Bean seeds planted in the form of seeds. For this, about 10 to 15 kg of seeds required in one hectare of field. Seed sowing can done either by hand or by a drill. Treat the seeds with fungicide carbendazim, thiram or cow urine to protect them from disease.
Field Preparation For Bean Cultivation
To cultivate beans, the field prepared before sowing. For this, the remains of the old crop in the field must destroyed. To destroy these residues, the soil deeply ploughed with turning ploughs. After deep ploughing, put 15 to 20 carts of old cow dung manure as natural manure in the field and plough it again. Due to this, cow dung will mixed properly in the soil. After mixing the manure in the area, it pulverised by applying water. After a few days of ploughing, after ploughing the moist land of the field using a rotavator, as the landforce rotavator price is reasonable. Later making the soil friable, the area levelled by putting a pad in the soil. This does not cause waterlogging on the land.
Sowing Time And Methods
For sowing beans in the prepared field, first, make beds about 1.5 metres wide in the field. Sow 2 to 3 seeds on both sides of the beds at a distance of about 1.5 to 2.0 feet and a depth of 2 to 3 cm. According to the sowing of seeds near these prepared beds, bury bamboo sticks and build a mesh-like structure with the help of these bats. This structure allows the plant to kept above ground. If the plants are above the ground, then the risk of diseases and pests will be less in them, the plant’s growth will be good, and the crop will saved from rotting.
The sowing of bean seeds done at different times in different places. In this, the sowing of seeds should done from the middle of October to November in the northeastern states. In North-West states, the seeds sown until the middle of September. Apart from this, in hilly areas, seeds sown in June and July.
Irrigation, Fertilizer And Manure Management
The cultivation of beans does not require much irrigation. Its irrigation depends on the soil type and the ground’s water holding capacity. If the bean seed sown in loamy soil, it requires less irrigation. However, seeds sown in sandy and clay soils, so more irrigation needed. The first irrigation of bean cultivation should be done immediately after planting.
After this, water should kept at an interval of 3 to 4 days to maintain moisture in the field at the time of seed germination. Manure and fertilizer should be used based on soil tests for bean crops. Bean is a leguminous crop, and due to this, its root glands fix nitrogen. But according to the soil test report card, farmers should use 130 to 180 quintals of cow dung or compost per hectare as chemical fertilizer before sowing. After this, add 60 kg (Phosphorus, Potash, and Nitrogen) at the time of the last ploughing of the field. Moreover, it is necessary to spray 15 to 20 kg of urea and irrigate the plants.
Bean Harvesting Process
Harvesting of beans depends on their variety and time of sowing. Although it takes 3 to 5 months for the production of the bean crop, after this, the crop can harvested daily for 3 to 4 months from the bean plants. Harvest the bean pods at a fully developed and tender stage. They become hard when harvesting these beans late, and fibres come into them. Due to this, these beans’ fair market price is unavailable. Therefore, do not forget to pluck the beans from time to time.
Cost, Yield And Profits In Bean Cultivation
It costs about 20 to 25 thousand to cultivate beans on one hectare of land, including all the expenses, from the preparation of the field to the sowing of the area, irrigation and fertilizers. After about 100 to 150 days of sowing the beans, the yield starts from the bean plant. About 100 to 150 quintals can be obtained from one hectare of beans. This crop productivity depends on the climate, soil, variety, safety management, irrigation, etc. The market price of beans is around Rs 25 to 30 per kg. Farmers can profit by earning up to two to two and a half lakh rupees from a one-time crop of beans.
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